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Ever since HIV-1 was first discovered, the reasons for its sudden emergence, epidemic spread, and unique pathogenicity have been a subject of intense study. Soon thereafter, additional viruses, collectively termed simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) with a suffix to denote their species of origin, were found in various different primates from sub-Saharan Africa, including African green monkeys, sooty mangabeys, mandrills, chimpanzees, and others (Fig. Surprisingly, these viruses appeared to be largely nonpathogenic in their natural hosts, despite clustering together with the human and simian AIDS viruses in a single phylogenetic lineage within the radiation of lentiviruses (Fig. Interestingly, close simian relatives of HIV-1 and HIV-2 were found in chimpanzees (Huet et al. Several of these SIVs have crossed the species barrier to great apes and humans, generating new pathogens (see text for details).A first clue came in 1986 when a morphologically similar but antigenically distinct virus was found to cause AIDS in patients in western Africa (Clavel et al. Curiously, this new virus, termed human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), was only distantly related to HIV-1, but was closely related to a simian virus that caused immunodeficiency in captive macaques (Chakrabarti et al. Known examples of cross-species transmissions, as well as the resulting viruses, are highlighted in red. The evolutionary relationships among Pol sequences (∼ 770 amino acids) derived from various mammalian lentiviruses; host species are indicated at the right.Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was first recognized as a new disease in 1981 when increasing numbers of young homosexual men succumbed to unusual opportunistic infections and rare malignancies (CDC 1981; Greene 2007). 2011); however, 80% of adults acquire HIV-1 following exposure at mucosal surfaces, and AIDS is thus primarily a sexually transmitted disease (Hladik and Mc Elrath 2008; Cohen et al. Since its first identification almost three decades ago, the pandemic form of HIV-1, also called the main (M) group, has infected at least 60 million people and caused more than 25 million deaths (Merson et al. Developing countries have experienced the greatest HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality, with the highest prevalence rates recorded in young adults in sub-Saharan Africa (A retrovirus, now termed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), was subsequently identified as the causative agent of what has since become one of the most devastating infectious diseases to have emerged in recent history (Barre-Sinoussi et al. Although antiretroviral treatment has reduced the toll of AIDS- related deaths, access to therapy is not universal, and the prospects of curative treatments and an effective vaccine are uncertain (Barouch 2008; Richman et al. Thus, AIDS will continue to pose a significant public health threat for decades to come. These relationships provided the first evidence that AIDS had emerged in both humans and macaques as a consequence of cross-species infections with lentiviruses from different primate species (Sharp et al. Indeed, subsequent studies confirmed that SIVmac was not a natural pathogen of macaques (which are Asian primates), but had been generated inadvertently in US primate centers by inoculating various species of macaques with blood and/or tissues from naturally infected sooty mangabeys (Apetrei et al. Similarly, it became clear that HIV-1 and HIV-2 were the result of zoonotic transfers of viruses infecting primates in Africa (Hahn et al. In this article, we summarize what is known about the simian precursors of HIV-1 and HIV-2, and retrace the steps that led to the AIDS pandemic. Old World monkeys are naturally infected with more than 40 different lentiviruses, termed simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) with a suffix to denote their primate species of origin (e.g., SIVsmm from sooty mangabeys).2010), and it is tempting to speculate that less ubiquitous SIVs were acquired more recently and/or may be more pathogenic.Of the many primate lentiviruses that have been identified, SIVcpz has been of particular interest because of its close genetic relationship to HIV-1 (Fig. However, studies of this virus have proven to be challenging because of the endangered status of chimpanzees.

Tracing the genetic changes that occurred as SIVs crossed from monkeys to apes and from apes to humans provides a new framework to examine the requirements of successful host switches and to gauge future zoonotic risk. HIV-1 spreads by sexual, percutaneous, and perinatal routes (Hladik and Mc Elrath 2008; Cohen et al. Scout turns 4 weeks old today so naturally I had to get her picture with it.Paisley was almost named Scout and this pregnancy we decided before we knew what we were having that if baby was a girl-she would be our Scout.Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) of humans is caused by two lentiviruses, human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2).Here, we describe the origins and evolution of these viruses, and the circumstances that led to the AIDS pandemic.

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